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Copyright, 1920

BY

The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation

Copyright, 1922

BY

The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation

Copyright, 1924

BY

The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation

fEB23 *24 _

J. B. LYON COMPANY GENERAL PRINTERS ALBANY NEW YORK

©CIA777238

PARTIAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME XXVIII

ABRAMS, ALFRED W., Ph.B.

Chief, Visual Instruction Division, New York State Education Department

VISUAL INSTRUCTION

AUSTIN, O. P., M.A.

Statistician of the National City Bank of New York

WAR, EUROPEAN THE WAR AND ITS RELATION TO WORLD COM¬ MERCE,

WAR, EUROPEAN EFFECT OF THE WAR ON CURRENCY

BAILEY, WILLIAM L., M.A.

Associate Professor of Political Science, Grinnell College

VILLAGE, THE

BARNES, HARRY ELMER, Ph.D.

Professor of History, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

WAR, EUROPEAN THE WAR AND THE SMALL NATIONS OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BASSETT, JOHN SPENCER, Ph.D.

Professor of History, Smith College

WAR, EUROPEAN MILITARY OPER¬ ATIONS ON THE WESTERN FRONT WAR, EUROPEAN NAVAL OPERA¬ TIONS

WAR, EUROPEAN EVENTS SUBSE¬ QUENT TO THE ARMISTICE WAR, EUROPEAN THE PEACE CON¬ FERENCE OF 1919

BENTLEY, MADISON S., B.S., Ph.D.

Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois

VISION

BOLTON, R. RAY

Formerly Assistant Professor of Veterinary Medi¬ cine, Iowa State College

VETERINARY MEDICINE VETERINARY OBSTETRICS VETERINARY SURGERY

BRAUN, WILHELM ALFRED

New York City

VON DROSTE-HULSHOFF, ANNETTE ELISABETH

CALLAHAN, JAMES MORTON, Ph.D.

Professor of History and Political Science, West Virginia University

VIRGINIA, THE RESTORED (OR RE¬ ORGANIZED) GOVERNMENT OF VIRGINIA-PENNSYLVANIA BOUND¬ ARY DISPUTE

CANFIELD, ARTHUR G., A.M.

Professor of Romance Languages, University *of Michigan

WANDERING JEW, THE

CAPPS, W. L.

Rear-Admiral; Chief Constructor, United States Navy

WARSHIPS, MODERN

CARMAN, E. A.*

General, United States Army

VICKSBURG, MILITARY OPERATIONS AGAINST AND SIEGE OF WASHINGTON (D. C.), EARLY’S AT¬ TEMPT ON

CARVER, THOMAS H., Ph.D., LL.D.

Professor of Political Economy, Harvard University

WAGES

COCHRANE, CHARLES H.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

WAR, EUROPEAN FIGHTING STRENGTH OF THE NATIONS WAR, EUROPEAN— WAR CASUALTIES..

COUMBE, CLEMENT W.

Technical Art Expert

VINE IN ART AND SYMBOLISM

CURRIER, ANDREW F., M.D.

Mount Vernon, N. Y.

VITAL STATISTICS

DAYTON, EDWIN W.

Major, Infantry R. L.

WAR, EUROPEAN AERIAL OPERA¬ TIONS

DICKINSON, THOMAS H., Ph.B., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of English, University of Wisconsin

VENICE PRESERVED, OR A PLOT DISCOVERED

DODD, WILLIAM E., B.S., M.S., Ph.D.

Professor of ^American History, University of Chicago

WALKER, ROBERT J.

DOIG, FRANK C.

Director of Publicity, Seattle Chamber of Com¬ merce and Commercial Club

WASHINGTON (STATE OF)

DOLE, NATHAN HASKELL, A.B.

Author, Editor and Translator

WAR AND PEACE

DOOLITTLE, ERIC, C.E.

Director, Flower Astronomical Observatory, Uni¬ versity of Pennsylvania

VENUS

* Deceased

Contributors to Volume XXVIII— Continued

EGGERT, CARL E., B.Ph., Ph.D.

Formerly Assistant Professor of German, Univer¬ sity of Michigan

WALLENSTEIN

FARROW, EDWARD S., C.E.

Consulting Military and Civil Engineer

VOLUNTEERS

FAY, SIDNEY BRADSHAW, Ph.D.

Professor of European History, Smith College

WAR, EUROPEAN THE EASTERN FRONT

FENLON, JOHN F.

President of Divinity College, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

VULGATE, THE

FINCK, HENRY T., A.Bi

Musical Critic, New York Evening Post

WAGNER, RICHARD

GARNER, JAMES WILFORD, Ph.D.

Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois

VETO

WAR, INSTRUMENTALITIES AND METHODS OF WAR ZONES

GRIFFIS, WILLIAM ELLIOT, D.D., L.H.D.

Author of The Mikado’s Empire,” etc.

WALLOONS

HALE, EDWARD EVERETT, Ph.D.

Professor of English, Union College

WAKE-ROBIN

HART, ALBERT BUSHNELL, Ph.D., LL.D., Litt.D.

Professor of Government, Harvard University

WAR, EUROPEAN AMERICAN NEU¬ TRALITY

HARTMANN, JACOB WITTMER, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of German Language and Literature, The College of the City of New York

VIEBIG, CLARA

HAUSMANN, PHILIP W.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

WAR, EUROPEAN PSYCHOLOGY OF THE WAR (EUROPEAN)

KALLEN, HORACE MEYER, Ph.D.

New School of Social Research, New York City

WAR, EUROPEAN PSYCHOLOGY OF THE WAR (AMERICAN)

KLEIN, HENRI F.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

WAR, EUROPEAN HISTORICAL IN¬ TRODUCTION

WAR, EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC HISTORY

WAR, EUROPEAN ITALIAN CAM¬ PAIGN

WAR, EUROPEAN COLONIAL AND JAPANESE CAMPAIGNS WAR, EUROPEAN TURKISH CAM¬ PAIGNS

KNIGHT, M. M.

Lecturer on Political Science, Hunter College of the City of New York

WAR, EUROPEAN POST-WAR PROB¬ LEMS AND RECONSTRUCTION IN THE BALKANS

LENNOX, PATRICK J., B.A., Litt.D.

Professor of English Language and Literature, Catholic University of America

VERSIFICATION

LOMB, CARL F.

United States Standard Voting Macnine Company

VOTING MACHINE

McDANNALD, A. H., B.L.

Managing Editor, Encyclopedia Americana

WAR, EUROPEAN COSTS OF THE WORLD WAR

WAR, EUROPEAN REPATRIATION OF PRISONERS

McDonnell, j. b., b.a.

Editorial Staff of The Americana

WAR, EUROPEAN BALKAN CAM¬ PAIGN

MEADER, JOHN R.*

Labor and Service Department, Brighton Mills, Passaic, N. J.

WARS OF THE WORLD

MITCHELL, S. C., Ph.D., LL.D.

President of Delaware College

VIRGINIA CONVENTIONS OF THE REVOLUTION, THE

MOORE, J. PERCY, Ph.D.

Professor of Zoology, University of Pennsylvania

WARBLES

MASON, ARTHUR H., Ph.D.

Professor of English, New York University

WARTON, JOSEPH WARTON, THOMAS

PACK, CHARLES LATHROP

President of the National War Garden Commission

WAR GARDENS

PATTON, JOHN S.

Librarian, Library of the University of Virginia

VIRGINIA

PERKINS, GEORGE H., Ph. D., LL.D., Litt.D.

Dean, College of Arts, University of Vermont

VERMONT

PERSHING, JOHN J., B.A., LL.B.

General, United States Army; Commander-in-Chief, American Expeditionary Forces in the World War

OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE AMER¬ ICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES

RINES, IRVING E.

Editor of “History of the United States”

VOTE, VOTERS, VOTING

* Deceased

Contributors to Volume XXVIII Concluded

RISTEEN, ALLAN D., Ph.D.

Director of Technical Research', The Travelers Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn.

VOLATILE OILS

RITCHIE, ALBERT C., A.B., LL.B.

Attorney-General of Maryland, 1015-19; General Counsel, War Industries Board, Iyl8-19; and Governor of Maryland, 1920-

WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD

ROLFE, JOHN C., Ph.D.

Professor of Latin Language and Literature, Uni¬ versity of Pennsylvania

VIRGIL

SCOTT, ARTHUR P.

Assistant Professor of History, University of Chicago

WAR, EUROPEAN NEUTRALS AND

THE WORLD WAR

SHOWERMAN, GRANT, Ph.D.

Professor of Latin Literature, University of Wis¬ consin

VIRGIL’S ECLOGUES

SULLIVAN, JAMES, Ph.D.

Director of the Division of Archives and History of the University of the State of New York

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE

TUBBS, FRANK H.

Sometime Editor of Music Life

VOICE AND VOICE CULTURE

TUCKER, MARION, Ph.D.

Professor of English, The Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn

VISION OF JUDGMENT, THE

VAN DOREN, CARL, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of English, Columbia University

VICAR OF WAKEFIELD, THE

VAN TYNE, CLAUDE HALSTEAD, Ph.D.

Head of Department of History, University of Michigan

WASHINGTON, GEORGE

WARD, HENRY BALDWIN, Ph.D.

Professor of Zoology, University of Illinois

VORTICELLA

WERTENBAKER, THOMAS J., Ph.D.

Associate Professor of History and Politics, Prince¬ ton University

WAR, EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC NEGOTIATIONS

WILCOX, MARRION, LL.B.

Co-editor “Encyclopedia of Latin America

VIENNA

WILSON, LEWIS A.

Director, Division of Agricultural and Industrial Education, New York State Department of Education

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

WRIGHT, HERBERT F., Ph.D.

Sometime Librarian of the Latin Library, The Catholic University of America

VEXILLA REGIS PRODEUNT

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

a

far, father

n

Span, h, as in canon (cari'ybn), pihon (pen'yon)

a

fate, hate

ng

mingle, singing

a or

a

at, fat

nk

bank, ink

a

air, care

a

ado, sofa

6

no, open

a

all, fall

o or 6

not, on

ch

choose, church

6

corn, nor

e

eel, we

6

atom, symbol

e or

e

bed, end

o

book, look

e

her, over: also Fr. e , as in

de;

oi

oil, soil; also Ger. eu, as in beutel

eu, as in neuf ; and oen, as in

boeuf , coeur; Ger. o (or as in okonomie.

oe),

6 or oo

fool, rule

e

befall, elope

ou or ow

allow, bowsprit

e

agent, trident

s

satisfy, sauce

ff

off, trough

sh

show, sure

g

gas, get

th

thick, thin

gw

anguish, guava

fit

father, thither

h

hat, hot

u

mute, use

h or

H

Ger. ch, as in nicht, wacht

u or u

but, us

hw

what

u

pull, put

I

file, ice

ii

between u and e, as in Fr. sur,

Ger. Muller

i or

him, it

5

between e and i, mostly

in

V

of, very

Oriental final syllables, Ferid-ud-din

as,

y

(consonantal) yes, young

3*

gem, genius

z

pleasant, rose

kw

quaint, quite

zh

azure, pleasure

Fr. nasal m or n, as in embon- '(prime), " (secondary) accents, to indicate point, J ean, temps syllabic stress

VENICE, ven'is, (Ital., Venezia; Ger., Venedig), northern Italy, a sea¬ port city and capital of a province in the compartment or division of Venetia, situated on about 120 islands in a lagoon or shallow bay of the Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Venice), north of the mouths of the Adige and Po, 150 miles east of Milan and 70 miles west-southwest of Trieste. The city has a compact, roughly elliptical form, the greater number of the islands being close to¬ gether and separated only by narrow canals {Hi), about 175 in number, over which 378 bridges have been constructed. The city is about two and a half miles from the mainland, with which it is connected by a railway bridge of 222 arches. On the sea side, separating the lagoons from the open sea, are long narrow stretches of sand-hills, known as lidi, strength¬ ened in places by masonry bulwarks. Both the lidi and the coast behind the town are de¬ fended by strong forts. Besides the canals, which to a large extent take the place of streets in Venice, there are numerous narrow lanes ( calH ) between the houses. The broadest street is the Corso Vittorio Emanuele in the north, and the most important business street is the Merceria, lined by handsome shops, which opens into the Piazza San Marco. The build¬ ings are mostly erected on piles. The main part of the city is traversed by the Grand Canal, about two miles long and from 33 to 66 yards in width, which proceeds from the southeast to the railway station in the northwest by a wind¬ ing course, somewhat like a letter S. It is lined along its whole length on both banks by a series of splendid palaces and houses. It is crossed by the famous Rialto bridge, in the centre of the city, built in 1588-91 and consist¬ ing of a single marble arch, and by two iron bridges. The tramways and cabs of other towns are represented in Venice by gondolas, barcas, steam launches and the steamers of the Societa Veneta Lagunare, which ply on the canal. The chief square is the Piazza San Marco (Saint Mark is the patron saint of Venice) on the southeast, continued by the smaller Piazzetta to the bank of the Canale di San Marco, and lined by some of the chief buildings of the city. It is the fashionble promenade of the Venetians and the centre of the city’s life. Of islands not forming part of the main mass of the city the chief are Giudecca, on the south, separated from Venice proper by the Canal della Giudecca; Isola di San Giorgio Maggiore, im¬

mediately east of the former, and separated from Venice by the broad Canale di San Marco; Isola di San Pietro, east of the main group of islands ; Murano, a mile and a half to the north, with an ancient glass industry; Cemetery Is¬ land, to the northeast; Burano, to the north¬ east, with lace-factories ; Torcello, to the north¬ east, with an interesting cathedral ; San Laz¬ zaro, to the southeast, with an Armenian Mechitarist monastery ; and San Servolo, to the southeast, with the lunatic asylum of the province. Of the sand-banks or lidi already mentioned the Lido di Malamocco fronting the city across the lagoon is a very popular well- equipped resort largely patronized during the bathing season.

Churches. The great church of Venice is the cathedral of Saint Mark, on the east side of the square of the same name. It was begun in 830 as a brick basilica in Romanesque style and was rebuilt after the fire in 976. It was elaborately decorated and transformed into a Byzantine building in the succeeding two or three centuries, and in the 15th century Gothic elements were added. In its present form it is a Greek cross surmounted by a dome at the end of each arm and one in the centre, and it contains about 500 columns, mostly in Oriental style, with richly ornamented capitals. The in¬ terior is adorned with a great profusion of splendid mosaics and also by other artistic pro¬ ductions of great beauty, such as the bronze monument of Cardinal Zeno and the Pala d’Oro, an altar-piece exquisitely worked with jewels on plates of gold and silver. Near the cathe¬ dral stood till its fall in 1902 the square Cam¬ panile, or bell-tower, 322 feet in height, with fine bronze statues and gates, and here is the clock-tower, with two bronze giants for strik¬ ing the hours. The Campanile has been rebuilt. Among other churches are the following: Saints Giovanni e Paolo, a splendid Gothic domed building erected in 1340-1430, contain¬ ing the burial-vaults of the doges and many magnificent monuments; San Maria Glorioso dei Frari, a beautiful cruciform structure in Italian-Gothic style, erected in 1250-1338, con¬ taining some splendid monuments and several of the finest works of Titian and Giovanni Bellini; San Salvatore, completed in 1534 (fagade later) and recently restored, containing Titian’s ( Annunciation > ; Madonna dell’ Orto, with a beautiful fagade in late Gothic style and containing many fine pictures by Tintoretto and others; San Zaccaria, built in 1457-1515 in

VENICE

the style of the Gothic-Renaissance transition, with fine pictures; San Maria Formosa, an early cruciform church, often rebuilt, with good pic¬ tures by Palma Vecchio and others ; San Maria dei Miracoli, erected in the style of the Early Renaissance in 1481 (restored), adorned with marble outside and beautifully decorated in the interior; San Giacomo di Rialto, the oldest church of the city; San Rocco (1490, re¬ stored 1725), containing many of Tintoretto’s works; San Sebastian (1506-18, restored), containing the tomb of Paolo Veronese and fine paintings by him ; San Maria della Salute, erected in 1631-32 in memory of the plague, including works by Titian and others; San Giorgo Maggiore, on the island of the same name, begun by Palladio in 1560, with a very beautiful interior; II Redentore, on the Giudecca, erected by Palladio in 1576; San Giovanni Crisostomo, Renaissance style, . con¬ taining fine painting by Giovanni Bellini and Sebastiano del Piombo ; San Marciliano, not¬ able for works by Titian and Tintoretto ; San Caterina, with a splendid altar-piece by Paolo Veronese; the Jesuits’ church, in baroque style (1715-30), and splendidly decorated, with a fine altar-piece by Titian; San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, with Renaissance faqade and con¬ taining fine paintings by Carpaccio ; San Pietro di Castello, on San Pietro Island, the cathedral of the city till 1807 ; San Giovanni Elemosinario (1527), containing a splendid altar-piece by Titian, etc. There are also churches for Angli¬ cans, Scottish Presbyterians, Waldensians, Ger¬ man Protestants, Greek Catholics, Armenians, Jews, an Italian Free Church, etc.

Palaces. The Procuratie Vecchie, so called because the procurators of the republic for¬ merly dwelt in them, is an imposing group of buildings on the north side of the Piazza San Marco, and directly opposite them are the Pro¬ curatie Nuove, which together with the magni¬ ficent library building now form the royal palace. The Procuratie Vecchie were built in 1496-1520, and the Procuratie Nuove were be¬ gun in 1584. The library was begun by San¬ sovino in 1536 and is one of the finest non- ecclesiastical buildings in Italy. Its interior is adorned with ceiling and wall paintings by Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, Schiavone and others. Facing the old Library, on the opposite (eastern) side of the Piazzetta, stands the Palazzo Ducale or Palace of the Doges, which was first erected in 800 and has been rebuilt in styles of ever-increasing grandeur after five destructions. The exterior consists of two arcades, one above the other, and is adorned with colored marbles. It was restored in 1873-89. The Porta della Carta, a portal next to the cathedral, the incomplete court, and the flight of steps (Scala dei Giganti) leading up to the palace deserve special mention. The in¬ terior is very fine and contains a splendid col¬ lection of works by Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese and other great Venetian masters, including the ‘Paradise* of the first named, which is the largest oil-painting in the world. The building also includes the Library of Saint Mark, with its many manuscripts and other treasures, and an archaeological museum. The famous Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri) leads from the Palace to the Prigioni Criminali, or prison for ordinary criminals, built in 1512-97 and still in

use. The palaces along the banks of the Grand Canal are of all styles from Romanesque to Late Renaissance, among them being the fol¬ lowing : Palazzo Corner della Ca Grande (1532), now the seat of the prefecture ; Palazzo Grimani (in Renaissance), a very fine building, now containing the Court of Appeals ; Palazzo Farsetti and Palazzo Loredan (Romanesque), both now used by the municipal authorities; Palazzo Rezzonico (17th and 18th centuries), in which Robert Browning died; Palazzo Foscari (Gothic), now containing a higher commercial school ; Palazzo Cappello-Layard, the former residence of Sir H. A. Layard; Palazzo Bernardo, said to be the oldest build¬ ing of the city, now a mosaic factory. Fondaco de’ Tedeschi, a German warehouse from the beginning of the 13th century, now the chief post and revenue office ; Palazzo Ca Doro (Gothic), now the French consulate; Palazzo Vendramin Calergi' (Early Renaissance), one of the finest of all, the place where Wagner died; Paul de Camerlenghi (Early Renaissance), the former repository of the treasures of the republic; and the Fondaco de’ Turchi (Roman¬ esque), once a Turkish warehouse, now con¬ taining the municipal museum.

Monuments. These include: in the Piazza San Marco, the pedestals of the flagstaffs (1505) and the marble sarcophagus, supported by lions, of Daniele Manin, the head of the short-lived republic of 1848; in the Riva degli Schiavoni, a marble-paved quay along the north bank of Saint Mark’s Canal, an equestrian statue of Victor Emmanuel II (1887) ; in the Campo San Bartolommeo, a bronze statue of Carlo Goldoni (1883) ; in the Campo San Fosca, a bronze statue of Fra Paolo Sarpi (1892) ; besides the church of Saints Giovanni e Paolo and equestrian statue of Bartolommeo Colleoni, modeled by A. Verrocchio (d. 1488) and cast in bronze by A. Leopardo, on a marble pedestal designed by the latter (1490-05), considered by Ruskin the finest work of sculpture in the world; south of the arsenal, Venvenuti’s monu¬ ment (1885) in commemoration of the service of the soldiers in the inundation of 1882; a bronze monument to Garibaldi (1887) at the entrance to the public gardens; and a marble statue of Niccolo Tommaseo (1882) in the Campo Francesco Morosini.

Educational Institutions, Collections, Gar¬ dens, etc. The Accademia di Belle Arti, at the southern end of the older iron bridge over the Grand Canal, contains a priceless collection of paintings by Venetian masters, including Titian (his masterpiece is here), Paolo Veronese, Gio¬ vanni and Gentile Bellini, Palma Vecchio, Rocco Marconi, Pordenone, Cima da Conegliano, Paris Bordone, Carpaccio, Tintoretto and Tiepolo. The Reale Istituto di Belle Arti is situated be¬ side the academy. The Royal Institute of Sciences, Arts and Industry occupies one of the palaces on the Grand Canal. The Museo Civico Correr, in the Fondaco de’ Turchi, com¬ prises both the former municipal and the Cor¬ rer collections. The town also has l'yceums and gymnasia, an Armenian educational insti¬ tute, a Seminario Patriarcale, containing some sculptures and pictures, technical schools, a higher commercial school, school of industrial art, a deaf-mute school, conservatory of music, athenaeum, observatories and other similar in-

VENICE

The Cathedral of Saint Mark

VENICE

Copyright Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.

2 Saint Mark’s, Interior View

1 Campanile and Doge's Palace

VENICE

3

stitutions. The Giardini Pubblici, in the south¬ east, were laid out by Napoleon in 1807 on the site of monasteries which he caused to be de¬ molished ; other gardens are the Giardino Reale, behind the royal palace, and the Giardino Papadopoli, at the northern end of the Grand Canal. The chief theatre of the town is La Fenice.

Public and Commercial Buildings, etc.

Among these are : the archives building, besides the Frari church, containing about 14,000,000 documents, from 883 downward; the Zecca or mint (1536), besides the royal palace; the cus¬ toms-house, at the southeast end of the Grand Canal; the branch of the Banca d’ltalia in the Palazzo Manin; the Monte di Pieta or pawn- office, in the Palazzo Corner della Regina; the arsenal, in the south of the city, with stocks, for shipbuilding and large graving-docks; the chamber of commerce; telegraph office; military prison; barracks, etc. New waterworks were completed in 1890. The public hospital is a large building beside the church of Saints Gio¬ vanni e Paolo, and the city also contains a mili¬ tary and a naval hospital, lunatic asylums, orphanages, a home for foundlings, houses of correction and other institutions of a like kind.

Manufactures, Trade, etc. In addition to the glass and lace industries on the island-s of Murano and Burano, there are in the city manu¬ factures of glass and glass beads, silk-stuffs, cottons, woolens, tobacco, soap, wax, furniture, gold and silver wares, matches, artificial flowers, machinery, torpedoes, etc. Shipbuilding is also a growing industry. The trade of Venice, though less important than in the 15th century, has been steadily growing for many years and is considerable, the port now', in normal times, ranking second to Genoa in the commercial importance of the kingdom. Vessels drawing 27 feet can reach Venice; a 30-foot channel has been dredged. During the Great War the port was closed. Vessels enter from the sea through the Porto Malamocco and the Porto Lido and there is considerable dock and wharf accom¬ modation in the Bacino della Stazione Marit- tima. Much modern improvement has been in¬ stituted in Venice, including careful sanitation, a new water supply from mainland sources by means of an aqueduct, and an electric lighting and industrial supply, generated by the Cellina torrent near Belluno and transmitted to the city.

History. The foundation of Venice is at¬ tributed to the inhabitants of the surrounding districts, who fled from the cruelty of Attila the Hun and took refuse among the islets off the mouth of the Brenta. Here, about the middle of the 5th century, they founded two small towns called Malamocco and Rivoalto and de¬ voted themselves to commerce. In 697 Pau- luccio Anafesto was elected the first doge or duke. In 819 the seat of government was trans¬ ferred from Malamocco to Rivoalto (Rialto), and the adjacent islands were connected by bridges. The Crusades (1096-1271) gave lucra¬ tive employment to the shipping of the Vene¬ tians and enabled them to make lfirge additions to their territory. In 1204 the Doge Enrico Dandolo conquered Constantinople with the aid of the French Crusaders. In consequence of this the Byzantine Empire was divided and the coast districts of the Adriatic apd the Levant,

together with numerous islands, including Can- dia, fell to the share of Venice. Under the suc¬ cessors of Dandolo, Genoa contrived to wrest from Venice her eastern conquests. In 1355 the Doge Marino Falieri, . who plotted the over¬ throw of the aristocratic form of government, was beheaded. During the dogeship of Andrea Contarini (1367-82) Padua, Verona, Genoa, Hungary and Naples leagued themselves against Venice, which, after a severe struggle, lost all its possessions on the mainland. The tide of fortune, however, soon set again in favor of the Venetians. In 1386 they captured Corfu, Durazzo, Argos, etc. ; in 1405 their general, Malatesta, conquered Vicenza, Belluno, Feltre, Verona and Padua; in 1408 they gained pos¬ session of Lepanto and Patras, and in 1409 of Guastalla, Casalmaggiore and Brescello. In 1416 the Venetian fleet under Loredan defeated the Turkish at Gallipoli and in 1421 subjugated all the towns on the Dalmatian coast. The close of the 15th century is the culminating point in the history of Venice. It had a population of 200,000, and was the centre of the entire com¬ merce of Europe. With the beginning of the 16th century its power began to decline. Its commerce was gradually superseded in a great measure by that of the Portuguese in conse¬ quence of the discovery of the new sea-route to India. A league to subdue the republic was formed at Cambrai in 1508 between Pope Julius II, the emperor of Germany and the kings of France and Spain. Once again all its posses¬ sions on the mainland were taken from it. The work of destruction was all but completed by warfare with the Turks, at intervals from 1649 to 1718, during which the Morea and the islands of Cyprus and Candia were lost and with them the ascendency in the Levant. After the French Revolution it refused to enter into an alliance with Bonaparte and the French took possession of the city in 1797. It subsequently became part of the Austrian Empire, of Napoleon’s king¬ dom of Italy and of the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom under Austria, in which last it contin¬ ued from 1815 to 1866. A revolution broke out in 1848, when the citizens endeavored to re¬ establish their ancient form of government un¬ der the Presidency of Manin, but after suffer¬ ing from a 15 months’ siege by the Austrians and from internal dissension, it was compelled to capitulate. In consequence of the misfortunes of Austria in her war with Prussia in 1866 the city and province were ceded to Napoleon III, under whose auspices they were united by a plebiscite to the kingdom of Italy. During the Great War Venice was repeatedly bombed by hostile aviators and some public buildings were damaged and many priceless works of art were removed to places of safety. During the great Austro-German offensives of 1916-17 hostile forces penetrated to within little more than 20 miles of the city and threatened to debouch on the Venetian plain. A large area between Venice and the mouth of the Piave was flooded, in order to provide against the Teutonic ad¬ vance. The greatest names in Venetian art are those of the Lombardi (15th and 16th cen¬ turies), Jacopo Sansovino (1477-1570), Andrea Palladio (1518-80), Vincenzo Scamozzi ( 1552— 1616) and Baldassare Longhena (1604-75) in architecture; the Massegne (about 1400), the Buon 6 15th eenffiry), the Rlzzi (15th century).

4

VENICE, BANK OF

the Lombardi Alessandro Leopardi (d. 1522) and Jacopo Sansovino in sculpture; the Viva- rini (15th century), Iacopo Bellini (d. 1464), Carlo Crivelli (d. 1493), Gentile Bellini (1427- 1507), Giovanni Belini (1428-1516), Vittore Carpaccio, Cima da Conegliano, 'Giorgione (d. 1510), Jacopo Palma Vecchio (1480-1528), Tiziano Vecelli (Titian, 1477-1575), Sebastiano del Piombo (1485-1547), Rocco Marconi, Gio¬ vanni Antonio da Pordenone (1483-1539), Paris Bordone (1500-70), Jacopo Tintoretto ( 1518— 94), Paolo Veronese (1528-86), Palma Giovane and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1693-1770) in painting. Consult Ruskin, (Stones of Venice 5; Hazlitt, (The Venetian Republic ; Mrs. Oli- phant, (The Makers of Venice) ; Grant, Allen, (Venice> ; Brown, ( Studies in the History of Venice5 and (Venice: a Historical Sketch5; Douglas, (Venice and her Treasures5 ; Hazlitt, (The Venetian Republic5 ; Hutton, ( Venice and Venetia5 ; Motmenti, ( History of Venice5 ; (Venice in the Golden Age5 ; (Decadence of Venice5 ; Wiel, (Venice5 in the (Story of the Nations5 series.

VENICE, Bank of. The history of this remarkable institution forms one of the most instructive chapters in the annals of money, finance and banking. In 1171 the government of Venice, needing money to pay the expenses of a war upon which hung the destinies of the republic, plundered the treasury of its coins and bullion Delonging to the goldsmiths or bank¬ ers who had deposited those species in the mint and exchequer, to the amount of about 10,000,000 ducats. Unlike Genoa (see Genoa, Bank of), Venice paid its creditors, not by pledging the revenues of the state, nor by sur¬ rendering its autonomy to them, but by em¬ ploying its power and authority to create an artificial bank money more valuable than the gold and silver coins or bullion of which it had despoiled the bankers. This bank money did not consist of metal or of paper currency nor indeed of anything ponderable or portable, but merely of the registration in a book of so many artificial or imaginary ducats, repre¬ senting neither coins nor currency notes, as were made by law the only medium capable of liquidating bills of exchange.

The state opened a chamber of loans (Camera degl’ Imprestiti), giving credit on its books to each of the parties it had despoiled for the amount of their loss, with interest at 4 per cent per annum. This interest being always punctually paid, it gave the creditors or assigns a permanent and reliable fund con¬ sisting of the right to demand and receive 4 per cent per annum forever. By making the assignment payable only in credits on the books of the chamber or bank, familiarly known as the Giro,, it established a permanent income for the Giro, of which it could not be deprived so long as the state survived. This interest and the profits and inheritances presently to be described constituted the capitaf of the bank. The latter sources of income became in time so great that the allowance of the 4 per cent in¬ terest was discontinued as superfluous.

Between the plunder of Asia Minor by the Crusaders, of the Byzantine Empire by the Ven.eti and Latins, and the plunder of Moorish Spain by Genoa, Castile, Arragon and others,

the stock of metallic money in Europe had fallen so low that the degradation, debasement and clipping of coins had become common. No assurance was to be had for the honest payment of a bill of exchange. By instituting an imaginary money which could neither be clipped or debased; by reforming its. own coin¬ age and keeping it constant; by coining gold ducats (in 1252) containing 54 English grains of fine gold; by establishing a fixed legal re¬ lation between its coined money and its imag¬ inary money, and by other measures mentioned below, the Giro gradually became a reliable centre of exchange, not only for the commercial transactions of Venice, but also for those of other states. This movement received great impetus both from the extent of Venetian com¬ merce, the supremacy of its navy and the rigidity and impartiality of its jurisprudence.

In 1423 Venice took that important step which rendered the Giro the clearing-house for practically all Europe. It required that all bills of exchange drawn upon Venice should be paid only at the bank. Such payment was made by debiting the bill-acceptor’s account so and so many ducats and adding an equal sum of imaginary ducats to the credit of the bill- holder, who thus became the proprietor of so and so many ducats at the bank.

In presenting his bill of exchange for pay¬ ment the state required that the holder should effect the transaction in person, or by proxy. The transfer was made in the presence of two bookkeepers. No coins or any right to coins was involved in the transaction. The Giro kept no coins or circulating money. No en¬ dorsement was recognized or accepted. There¬ fore, the possession of the bill could not bene¬ fit a robber, whether marauding prince or foot¬ pad; it could not be passed around and used as money. Payable only at the Giro and in Giro credits, it was valueless elsewhere, valueless in other hands than those of the drawee. It was only money in and out of the Giro and only money in Giro debits and credits.. This system made of the Giro a clearing-house for the entire civilized world. In this sense it was used all over Europe and its colonies.

The government of Venice prohibited the circulation of any foreign coins or paper or leather money in its dominions. <(It prohibited dealing in foreign coins by private or public banks.55 All foreign coins were required to be sold to the mint, where they were valued, paid for according to their metallic contents and re¬ coined into Venetian pieces. All contracts made payable in coins (none of \^hich contracts con¬ cerned the Giro) were to be liquidated at the rates for coins named in the laws. The penal¬ ties for infraction extended to entire confisca¬ tion.

The government of Venice brooked no inter¬ ference from the pontifical government. It admitted no ecclesiastics into the management of the Giro. It refused to permit the Inquisi¬ tion to be set up anywhere in the dominions of Venice: a striking contrast with the policy of Genoa.

The Giro seldom received or paid out coins or paper money. It dealt only in. its own imag¬ inative money by inscribing debits and credits in its books. All coin transactions were turned over to the depository mentioned further on.

VENICE PRESERVED

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For its transfers of accounts it made no charge. 1

Those who desired a safe place in which to deposit coined money and draw upon it by transfer of account (as in the Giro) were served by a branch department or depository strongly built and well guarded which was es¬ tablished for these purposes by